Blog

This timeline helps us mark major developments and consider how far we’ve come as we plan how to support the early childhood system in North Carolina after the COVID-19 pandemic. Check back often for updates.

March 3 Governor Roy Cooper announces first person in North Carolina to test positive for Coronavirus.
March 14In response to a growing number of cases, Governor Cooper announces a two-week school closure, which includes NC Pre-K and pre-K sites in public schools. Other child care settings are encouraged to stay open to meet demand for emergency child care.
March 16 NC DHHS publishes “Interim Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Guidance for Child Care Settings,” which establishes preliminary health and safety precautions for child care providers to follow, including daily health checks of providers, parents and children, frequent disinfection of surfaces and toys and social distancing wherever possible.
March 17Twelve leading child advocacy organizations deliver a letter to the U.S. House of Representatives demanding an economic stimulus package for the child care sector.
March 17 NAEYC releases preliminary results from a COVID-19 survey conducted among child care providers beginning March 12. Nationally, 30% of these respondents said they would not survive a closing longer than two weeks without financial support.
Week of March 17Child Care Services Association (CCSA) employees adapt to begin primarily working from home.

CCSA’s Referral hotline is converted to support essential workers finding emergency child care during the COVID-19 crisis. Programs and providers continue to receive technical assistance from CCSA.
March 18Families First Coronavirus Response Act is passed. This piece of legislation expands emergency paid sick leave and emergency family and medical leave.
Week of March 23 CCSA launches its COVID-19 Relief Fund for child care programs, in partnership with the North Carolina Smart Start network. CCSA is able to continue payments to Durham PreK providers, despite closures. T.E.A.C.H. Early Childhood® Scholarship, Child Care WAGE$® and Infant-Toddler Educator AWARD$® recipients also continue to receive financial aid and payments despite school and center closures.
March 24The North Carolina Early Education Coalition delivers a letter to Governor Cooper and NC DHHS Secretary Mandy Cohen, calling for the closure of early childhood programs and the establishment of an emergency child care system.
March 27National COVID-19 stimulus, the CARES Act, is passed. The CARES Act authorizes funding for small business loans, infrastructure and $1,200 payments to any non-dependent adult with an income below $75,000 per year. Families with children will receive $1,200 per adult and an additional $500 for each child under the age of 18. Small business loans are authorized at a rate of 2.5 times the average costs of monthly payroll. CCSA published a document explaining this in detail for child care providers.

As part of the CARES Act, North Carolina is to receive $114 million through expansion to the Child Care Development Block Grant for assistance with child care closures, provider wages and child care subsidy for essential workers. Head Start receives $750 million. (Source: April 1 Webinar from NC Early Education Coalition).

This bill also authorizes significantly increased unemployment insurance and expands eligibility for unemployment insurance to self-employed workers. This expansion has the potential to help family child care providers.
March 27NAEYC releases state-by-state results from its COVID-19 survey of child care providers. In North Carolina, 32% of providers said they would not survive a closure longer than two weeks without support, and 12% said they would not survive closure of any length without immediate support.
March 27Governor Cooper announces stay at home order for North Carolina for 30 days, based on 763 confirmed cases of the virus and 3 confirmed deaths. Non-essential businesses are closed, others are closed to the public and individuals are directed to stay home except for essential trips. The order is later extended to May 8. Child care centers and homes are considered essential businesses under the order.
March 31Deadline for private child care centers and family child care homes in North Carolina to apply to stay open as emergency providers, which they must do in order to legally operate. Programs that do not apply are considered closed and are not eligible for some funding for this reason.

As of midnight on March 31, 3,804 (66%) of North Carolina’s licensed child care settings had applied to remain open, with 58% of private centers and 90% of family child care homes in the state applying to remain open. (Statistics source: NC Early Education Coalition Webinar April 1, 2020)
April 1NC DHHS begins the Emergency Child Care Program subsidy for essential workers with incomes below 300% of the federal poverty line, to be paid through at least April and May.
April 3 NC DHHS and DCDEE announce that all subsidy payments to child care providers will be paid through March, April and May, regardless of whether the center or child care home is open or closed. This is in addition to any subsidy for children of essential workers.
April 3A month from the first case, confirmed COVID cases have reached 2,483 and deaths have reached 29 in North Carolina.
April 7The NC Early Childhood Education Coalition, in collaboration with 20 organizations across the state, releases recommendations for a $125 million child care industry support package.
Week of April 8Around the two week mark of the stay at home order and several weeks after school closures, unemployed North Carolinians struggle to navigate the unemployment insurance system, dealing with long wait times and lack of responsiveness. Carolina Journal reports that North Carolina ranked lowest in the nation at disbursing unemployment payments on time for the first quarter of 2020.
April 10,The Bipartisan Policy Center releases results from a national poll of parents and guardians of young children who used child care in the last six months. Of parents who still need to use formal care, 63% reported difficulty finding care. About a third of parents were staggering work hours with a partner or other household member in order to care for their child(ren), 21% were working fewer hours to care for children and 10% were working outside of their normal hours.
April 17The CDC publishes a report based on Coronavirus hospitalizations from March 1-30, which found profound racial disparities in both COVID-19 hospitalizations and deaths, particularly for Black and Latinx patients.
April 20CCSA partners with Durham Public Schools and a network of nonprofits and restaurants to take part in Durham FEAST, an initiative to maintain food security for Durham children and families during school closures and other adverse impacts of COVID-19. On April 20, CCSA began preparing 200 breakfasts and 200 lunches on weekdays to support the initiative, and will continue to do so through May 29.
April 22Harvard Center on the Developing Child publishes a statement paper titled “Thinking About Racial Disparities in COVID-19 Impacts Through a Science-Informed, Early Childhood Lens,” in light of data showing disproportionately high rates of hospitalization and severe illness for people of color. The paper ties these outcomes to social determinants of health and chronic stress due to the direct and indirect effects of racism, starting in early childhood.
April 24The Center for American Progress predicts that without further intervention, 4.5 million child care slots could be lost nationwide due to the COVID-19 crisis.
April 28DCDEE data shows that 56% of child care centers and 30% of family child care homes have closed since January in North Carolina.
May 1The first deadline for child care providers to apply for CCSA’s COVID-19 Relief Fund, payments to be disbursed in June.
May 1Employees of Walmart, Target, Amazon, Instacart, Whole Foods and more walk off the job and ask customers to boycott as part of an International Workers Day strike.
May 3Two months from the first reported case; confirmed COVID-19 cases have reached 11,847, and deaths have reached 452 in North Carolina.
May 4Unemployment claims in North Carolina reach 1 million, which is 20% of the state’s workforce. So far, N.C. has made $1.27 billion in payments toward unemployment. Problems with the system persist, but since April 17 federal stimulus unemployment has been going into effect.
May 8Governor Cooper announces Phase 1 of the reopening plan. Phase 1 includes loosening of restrictions with some retail businesses re-opening at reduced capacity. Previously closed child care centers are allowed to reopen serving families with working parents or parents looking for work.
May 11As of the 11, all child care programs are licensed to reopen upon approval of an application. Any reopening child care program must follow COVID-19 NC DHHS public health guidance and commit to new licensing regulations. Some regulations that were lifted during the stay at home order are reinstated, such as limits on screen time for preschool-age children.
May 13The House of Representatives passes the Health and Economic Recovery Omnibus Act, or HEROES Act, the next proposed stimulus relief package. Though the bill would provide some major relief for families, renters and citizens with student loans, it falls short for the child care field. During the bill’s drafting process, child care policy advocates and researchers created a model to propose a dollar amount needed to keep the child care system afloat for the duration of the crisis. This amount was in the ballpark of $50 billion. Yet, the Heroes Act allocates a mere $7 billion toward child care relief. The Senate is expected to vote on the bill in June at the earliest.
May 14DCDEE announces new operational grants will be provided for child care facilities open in some or all of April, May and June to help cover losses from parent fees due to low enrollment.   Depending on size, rating, subsidy and other factors, eligible centers will receive anywhere between $500 and $30,000 per month, and family child care providers will receive between $359 and $2,500 per month.
Mid May to Early JuneThe Zigler Center in Child Development at the Yale University School of Medicine conducts a confidential survey of child care providers to help understand rates and causes of COVID-19 in child care settings, and estimate the potential spread caused by reopening.
May 21Boston Consulting Group releases a survey conducted in five countries including the U.S., which finds that 60% of respondents have no outside help with caring for their children, and parents now spend an average of 27 additional hours on household labor each week as opposed to before the pandemic. The bulk of this labor is falling to women, who are spending an average of 15 hours more than men on domestic work.
May 22North Carolina enters Phase 2 of the “Safer at Home” reopening plan, which allows some restaurants to open, child care providers to serve all children, larger indoor and outdoor gatherings and events, and more. Despite this, the day after reopening, the state experienced the biggest single-day spike in cases since the beginning of the pandemic.
May 25White Minnesota police officer Derek Chauvin kills George Floyd, a Black security officer, father and Minneapolis community member. The other three officers at the scene do not intervene. A video recording of Floyd’s murder goes viral on social media, sparking mass protests against police brutality in Minneapolis. In response to Floyd’s death and the murders of Ahmaud Arbery, Breonna Taylor, Tony McDade, Titi Gulley and countless others, protests erupt in every single state in the U.S. An unprecedented 2,000 cities and towns are participating in the ongoing Black Lives Matter protests, as well as over 60 countries.   Born in Fayetteville, North Carolina, George Floyd is survived by his three children. His six-year-old daughter, Gianna, can be seen speaking about her father in this video.

Here and here are some resources for talking to young children about racism and police violence. The National Black Child Development institute also has a list of resources on helping children cope with racial trauma.
May 27House Representatives Rosa DeLauro (D-CT), Bobby Scott (VA) and Patty Murray (D-WA) propose the Child Care is Essential Act, which would provide $50 billion in funding to stabilize and support the child care field. In the Senate, a companion bill is also introduced by Senators Murray, Casey, Gillibrand, Smith and Warren. The $50 Billion figure is consistent with the CLASP report referenced earlier in this timeline, which provided a state-by-state estimate of the funding needed to save the predicted 4.5 million child care slots from being lost.
May 30 through June 1Black Lives Matter protests erupt around the state, with thousands attending marches in Raleigh over the weekend. Police deploy tear gas and rubber bullets, and many people are arrested. The City of Raleigh establishes a curfew from 10:00 p.m. to 5:00 a.m. beginning June 1.  
First Two Weeks of JuneAfter reviewing more than 1,000 applications in May, CCSA begins notifying recipients and releasing funds as a part of the CCSA COVID-19 Relief Fund.
June 4The Payroll Protection Program is revised, so that borrowers have more flexibility in how they can use the loan, and the likelihood that they will receive full loan forgiveness is increased. The timeline for using the loan is increased to 24 weeks, and the deadline to rehire laid-off workers extended until December. Previously, borrowers were struggling with the loan’s strict requirements that 75% of the funding be used toward payroll. This was reduced to 60%.
June 11Due to a rising number of COVID-19 cases in the state, N.C. Health Secretary Mandy Cohen warns in a press conference of the possibility of returning to a stay at home order if conditions do not improve.
June 14In celebration of Pride Month and in mourning of the recent murders of Dominique “Rem’Mie” Fells, Riah Milton and Tony McDade, thousands rally outside the Brooklyn Museum in New York for Black trans lives. In North Carolina, the recent murders of Black trans women Monika Diamond, Chanel Scurlock and Keyiariah Quick, are still fresh. Being trauma-informed and treating LGBTQIA+ providers and young children with respect and dignity is vital. The NAEYC has provided the following resource, titled “Embracing LGBTQIA+ Staff in Early Childhood Programs.”  
June 15NCDHHS publishes updated Interim Guidance for Child Care Settings, which outlines updated health and safety procedures based on continuing the reopening process, and increased knowledge about COVID-19.
June 22North Carolina Health News publishes an article about the mental health impacts for children of isolation from friends and peers. The article contains perspectives from various studies, including a systematic review published in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in June, and interview quotes with several social workers.  
Week of June 22As we approach the initially proposed timeline for Phase 3 of reopening, a test positive rate of 10% and per day hospitalization rates reaching record highs in the state make it unlikely that Phase 3 will begin this week. Nearly four months after the first case in North Carolina, there have been a total of 53,840 cases, with 1,250 deaths.

By Marsha Basloe, President, Child Care Services Association

Working Parents Need Access to Quality Child Care – More Support Needed for Child Care Workforce

Currently, throughout North Carolina, nearly half a million (457,706) children under age six live in a family where all parents in the household are working.[1] Many of these children are in some type of child care setting every week so that their parents can obtain and retain jobs that sustain and grow our state’s economy. 

A study by the Committee for Economic Development (CED) shows that child care as an industry has an economic impact in North Carolina of $3.15 billion annually ($1.47 billion in direct revenue and $1.67 billion in spillover in other industries throughout our counties and cities).[2] Child care programs have an overall job impact throughout the state of 64,852, which includes 47,282 individuals who are employed within child care centers or who operate a home-based business plus another 17,570 in spillover jobs – created through the activity of those operating child care programs.[3] The economic impact of child care matters because it helps drive local economies. When parents can access child care, they are more likely to enter the workforce and stay employed. 

The Child Care Workforce: Early Brain Builders

Source: Committee for Economic Development, 2019

What we know is that child care is not only a work support for parents but also an early learning setting for young children. Research shows that a child’s earliest years are when the brain is developing the fastest – forming a foundation for all future social, emotional, physical and cognitive development. During this time, more than 1 million new neural connections are formed every second.[4] This is important to understand because both parents and child care providers play an important role in supporting healthy child development – helping to shape the brain’s foundation for all future learning (e.g., school readiness and school success).

Because both genes and experiences impact a child’s brain development,[5] the child care workforce plays a critical role in supporting early learning. In essence, they are brain builders – working with children to support a strong foundation on which later learning depends – just like the foundation for a house, all floors above the basement depend on the construction or sturdiness of the basement.

The Workforce that Supports All Other Workforces

Despite the important role that child care educators play in supporting our next generation (as well as supporting the ability of parents to work), the current economic model for child care programs falls short of supporting child care workers in a way that recognizes their role in child development. How so? The operating budget for child care programs is based on parent fees and state subsidies paid for low-income children.

Because the current cost of child care in North Carolina is so high (e.g., $9,254 annually for center-based infant care),[6] program directors try to keep costs down because they know parents can’t pay more. However, what this translates to is low wages for the child care field. In today’s economy, where the fast-food industry and retail sales pay higher hourly wages and often offer benefits, the competition for the workforce to enter the early childhood field is steep. In fact, the early childhood field is experiencing a workforce crisis.

In North Carolina, the median wage earned for child care teachers is about $10.97 per hour ($22,818 per year if full time) and assistant teachers earn $9.97 per hour.[7] These wages represent a modest 0.7% increase in buying power despite much larger gains in education. The study also found that statewide, 39% of teachers and teacher assistants had needed at least one type of public assistance (e.g., TANF, Medicaid, SNAP/food stamps, etc.) in the past three years.

Child Care Services Association (CCSA) is conducting a county-level early childhood workforce study for the Division of Child Development and Early Education (DCDEE) that will be completed in August 2020. Once completed, North Carolina will have additional information.

Source: Committee for Economic Development, 2019

For context, many child care educators are supporting their own families. With these wages, they fall well short of the level that qualifies them for public food assistance benefits (e.g., a family of three with income under $27,000 per year qualifies for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program – SNAP).[8] It’s not hard to understand that workers in low wage jobs face stresses in making ends meet, in supporting their own families and in parking their stress outside the classroom door when working with young children. 

In North Carolina, the state funds two programs administered by CCSA to support the early childhood workforce:

  • Child Care WAGE$® Program, which provides education-based salary supplements to low paid teachers, directors and family child care educators working with children ages birth to five. The program is designed to increase retention, education and compensation. The Child Care WAGE$® Program is a funding collaboration between local Smart Start partnerships (55 partnerships) and the Division of Child Development and Early Education (DCDEE).[9] Salary supplements are earned – tied to the recipient’s level of education, with teachers and family child care providers awarded on a different scale than directors.

These strategies are invaluable to better support the child care workforce for the important work that they do.  It raises salaries sometimes almost a dollar an hour. You can see the impact of these programs on our website. This is an investment in the workforce that supports all other workforces, AND also an investment that results in better outcomes for our children (e.g., brain-building that leads to school readiness). We hope these programs will grow in the years ahead to support our early childhood educators who care for our young children and families.

As we approach Thanksgiving, I am thankful for the work of our early educators. It is time for our communities to think about compensation for the early childhood workforce in a manner that reflects their contribution to our state’s prosperity.


[1] U.S. Census Bureau, Table B23008, Age of Own Children Under 18 Years in Families and Subfamilies by Living Arrangements by Employment Status of Parents, 2018 American Community Survey, 1 Year Estimates. https://data.census.gov/cedsci/table?q=b23008&hidePreview=true&table=B23008&tid=ACSDT1Y2018.B23008&lastDisplayedRow=15&g=0400000US37

[2] Child Care in State Economies: 2019 Update, Committee for Economic Development, 2019. https://www.ced.org/childcareimpact

[3] Ibid.

[4] Harvard University Center on the Developing Child, Brain Architecture. https://developingchild.harvard.edu/science/key-concepts/brain-architecture/

[5] Ibid.

[6] The U.S. and the High Price of Child Care: An Examination of a Broken System, Child Care Aware of America, 2019. https://usa.childcareaware.org/advocacy-public-policy/resources/priceofcare/

[7] Child Care Services Association, Working in Early Care and Education in North Carolina, 2015,  https://www.childcareservices.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/2015-Workforce-Report-FNL.pdf        

[8] U.S. Department of Agriculture, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, eligibility 2019. https://www.fns.usda.gov/snap/recipient/eligibility

[9] WAGE$ North Carolina, Child Care Services Association.  https://www.childcareservices.org/wages-nc/

[10] AWARD$ North Carolina, Child Care Services Association. https://www.childcareservices.org/awards/

By Tomonica Rice-Yarborough and Kathy Thornton from CCSA’s Professional Development Initiatives Team

World Teacher’s Day was established in 1994 to recognize and celebrate teachers all over the world for their hard work and dedication. It also brings to light the issues affecting the profession to work toward a resolution for retaining and attracting teachers to the field. This day was founded to celebrate public school teachers, but early care educators also should be recognized on this day because they’re instrumental to the growth and development of our children. Their contributions to society’s economic stability should be valued, recognized and celebrated.

One of the main issues facing early care educators is the little recognition or validation they receive for the pivotal roles they play in the lives and development of young children. As a field, early educators in North Carolina often hold degrees, but they earn significantly less than public school teachers. According to CCSA’s 2015 North Carolina Child Care Workforce Study, the median wage of center directors in North Carolina was $16.00 per hour, while teachers earned $10.97 per hour and assistant teachers earned $9.97 per hour. 

Although degree attainment has drastically increased in North Carolina, the field as a whole still suffers from being perceived as a high priced “babysitting service.” For 30 years, the T.E.A.C.H. Early Childhood® Scholarship Program has provided the workforce with access to a debt-free college education while they work as low wage earners teaching future doctors, lawyers, teachers, administrative assistants, scientists…

Our brains grow faster between the ages of birth and 3 than any other time in our life. Children who are formally cared for in early education settings outside of their homes depend on the early educator to support their developmental growth. Those years are particularly formative, making the role of the early educator even more critical. According to philosopher John Locke, “a child’s mind is a blank slate waiting to be filled with knowledge.” Early educators play a big part in setting the foundation for our children’s future.

On Sept. 4, 2019, Australia celebrated Early Childhood Educators’ Day to honor and appreciate early childhood educators. The world, like Australia, should have a day set aside to recognize early childhood educators. Sadly, early childhood educators are seldom during the World Teacher’s Day observance. This lends credence to the perception that early childhood education isn’t seen as a worthy profession. Why can’t we dedicate a day of observance to them?

Early education workforce initiatives in North Carolina such as the T.E.A.C.H. Early Childhood® Scholarship Program, the Child Care WAGE$® and the Infant-Toddler Educator AWARD$ salary supplement programs and NAEYC’s Power to the Profession are aimed at professionalizing the early care and education field so its members receive the respect, recognition and compensation they so rightly deserve.

Written by Edith Locke, CCSA Professional Development Team

The month of May signals the season for commencement exercises at colleges and universities nationwide. As students walk proudly across the stage in cap and gown, triumphantly moving the tassel on their mortarboard to symbolize academic achievement, it is important to recognize degree attainment roadblocks that the early care and education (ECE) field face.

Why are early educators more deserving of special acknowledgment for degree completion than other non-traditional, working students?

First, one should consider the shared traits of this workforce with college non-completers. The ECE workforce, much like the college non-completer, typically has dependent children, low income, works full-time, attends college part-time and is financially independent from parents.

Despite how closely they mirror college non-completers, degree attainment is not impossible. The 2015 Working in Early Care and Education in North Carolina Study reported 63 percent of teachers had a college degree. Additionally, 17 percent of teachers were taking courses in the ECE field with 60 percent of them working towards an associate or bachelor’s degree.

Unfortunately, degree attainment rarely means significant compensation gains. The median wage for ECE teachers was $10.46 compared to $17.61 starting wage of public school teachers in North Carolina.  Additionally, over 70 percent of the workforce’s household income was below the $46,784 North Carolina median household income. Moreover, 39 percent of teachers received some public assistance in the previous three years.

It is commendable the ECE workforce makes educational advancements despite challenges.

Workforce supports, such as the T.E.A.C.H. Early Childhood® scholarship and Child Care WAGE$® salary supplement programs that help early educators access formal education and reward their retention, are crucial. Research shows degrees are linked to quality care, and maternal education has been linked to better child outcomes. Therefore, support for degree attainment in the ECE field should remain a priority.

Written by Marsha Basloe, President of CCSA

Dr. Walter Gilliam presenting Implicit Biases in Early Childhood Settings at the Child Care Resource & Referral (CCR&R) Institute 2019 Conference on March 11, 2019.

“Better Together” was the theme of this year’s Child Care Resource & Referral (CCR&R) Institute held in Greensboro, N.C. in March, and Mary Erwin recently shared details of the Institute. A highlight of this year’s conference was the keynote delivered by Dr. Walter Gilliam from the Edward Zigler Center in Child Development and Social Policy at Yale. This blog is to keep the keynote information on our minds and in our work.

Delivered in a “TED talk” manner, Dr. Gilliam shared his research on implicit bias with the audience and the implications research has on both policy and practice impacting the early childhood workforce and children in early learning settings.

What is Implicit Bias?

Webster’s dictionary defines it as “bias that results from the tendency to process information based on unconscious associations and feelings, even when these are contrary to one’s conscious or declared beliefs”.

What is the Relationship Between Implicit Bias and Early Childhood Settings?

Dr. Gilliam shared data from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights that found black boys in particular were disproportionately suspended or expelled from preschool. To learn more about whether this may be related to the behavior of the child or the perceptions of the teaching workforce, Dr. Gilliam and his team at Yale conducted a study.  Specifically, Dr. Gilliam wanted to see whether implicit biases may play a role in identifying children with challenging behaviors.

Video Observation Study

Dr. Gilliam’s team recruited participants at a nationwide conference of early childhood educators. Early childhood teachers were asked to watch several video clips of preschool children engaged in typical table top activities. The children were racially balanced (one white boy and girl and one black boy and girl). Early childhood teachers were told the study was related to better understanding to how teachers detect challenging behaviors in the classroom. They were told sometimes this involves seeing behavior before it becomes a problem and were asked to press the enter key on a computer keyboard every time they saw a behavior that could become a potential challenge. They were told the video clips may or may not contain challenging behaviors and to press the keypad as often as needed. In addition to the keypad entries, an eye tracking device was used to log the time teachers spent watching the behavior of individual children. (For frame of reference with regard to the children, they were child actors and no challenging behaviors were present).

Heat map related to study participants’ child behavior observations. (Photo Credit: Yale Child Study Center)

Results

Dr. Gilliam and his team found teachers spent more time looking at boys and at black children than girls and white children. In particular, teachers spent more time watching the black boy in the videos. When teachers were asked explicitly which of the children required most of their attention, 42% indicated the black boy, 34% indicated the white boy, 13% indicated the white girl, and 10% indicated the black girl. The race of the teacher did not impact the findings.

Background Information Study

A second part of the study was related to finding out if teachers were provided information about the child’s background, whether that impacted their perception of the severity of the behavior and their ability to impact the child’s behavior. For this part of the study, early childhood teachers were given a brief description of a preschool student with his or her behavioral challenges. The description of child behaviors remained the same, but the name of the child associated with the description changed to reflect stereotypical black and white girl and boy names (Latoya, Emily, DeShawn and Jake).

To test if teachers changed their perceptions of the child’s behavior when given a brief family background summary, some teachers were also given more context related to the child’s home environment (e.g., the child lives with a single mother working multiple jobs and who struggles with depression but doesn’t have resources to receive help; the father is barely around, but when he is around, the parents fight loudly in front of the children, and sometimes violent disputes occur). The study randomized whether the early childhood teachers received background information or not.

Results

Dr. Gilliam and his team found that teachers appeared to expect challenging behaviors more from black children and specifically black boys. Without family background, white teachers seemed to hold black children to lower behavioral expectations. In contrast, black teachers held black children to very high standards.

The provision of family background information caused different perceptions based on teacher-child race. For example, when black teachers were provided with family background information on black children, teachers rated child behavior as less severe. When white teachers were provided with family background information on black children, behavior severity ratings increased – potentially indicating knowing family stressors may lead to feelings of hopelessness that behavior problems can improve.

The Role of Implicit Bias in Early Childhood Settings

Dr. Gilliam explained that understanding the role implicit bias may play in child care and early learning settings is the first step toward addressing racial disparities in discipline approaches. He explained that interventions are underway throughout the country designed to address biases directly or increase teachers’ empathy for children (which paves the way for more effective strategies related to children’s learning styles and behaviors).

Progress in North Carolina

North Carolina is beginning to review and implement strategies to address implicit bias, give early childhood teachers strategies to promote more effective ways to address challenging behavior and to support high-quality child care programs through better teacher-child interactions.

For example, the Infant Toddler Quality Enhancement Project (ITQEP) provides technical assistance through the statewide CCR&R system to better support infant and toddler staff and to improve teacher and child interactions. Staff participating in the Healthy Social Behaviors project use the Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (CSEFEL) Pyramid Model to provide tiered support based on individual classroom needs.

We are exploring infant and toddler mental health consultant evidence-based approaches as well as the use of tools to improve teacher-child interactions through the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS), which measures teacher interactions and is paired with specific improvement strategies identified through observational assessments. Overall, practice-based coaching models can impact teacher strategies to better meet the needs of children.

For more information on Dr. Gilliam’s research, check out this research brief and the work of the Yale Edward Zigler Center and Child Development and Social Policy.  

Through funding from the Division of Child Development and Early Education, a Race to the Top Early Learning Challenge Grant, Child Care Services Association (CCSA) conducted a statewide survey of the early care and education workforce in North Carolina. This study provides comprehensive data on teachers, assistant teachers and directors in early care and education centers and on the licensed early care and education programs in which they work. Additionally, information gathered from this study is compared to similar studies conducted by CCSA in 2014, 2011 and 2003.

2015 North Carolina Child Care Workforce Report

 

Statewide Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 1:
Bertie, Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Dare, Gates, Hertford, Northampton, Pasquotank, Perquimans

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 2:
Beaufort, Craven, Hyde , Pamlico, Tyrrell, Washington

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 3:
Carteret, Greene, Jones, Lenoir, Martin, Onslow, Pitt

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 4:
Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus, Duplin, New Hanover, Pender, Sampson

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 5:
Anson, Cumberland, Hoke, Montgomery, Moore, Richmond, Robeson, Scotland

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 6:
Cabarrus, Mecklenburg, Rowan, Stanly, Union

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 7:
Catawba, Cleveland, Gaston, Lincoln

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 8:
Buncombe, Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Haywood, Henderson, Jackson, Macon, Madison, Polk, Rutherford , Swain, Transylvania

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 9:
Alexander, Avery, Burke, Caldwell, Iredell, McDowell, Mitchell, Watauga, Yancey

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 10:
Alleghany, Ashe, Davidson, Davie, Forsyth, Stokes, Surry, Wilkes, Yadkin

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 11:
Guilford, Randolph, Rockingham

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 12:
Alamance, Caswell, Durham, Franklin, Granville, Orange, Person, Vance, Wake

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 13:
Chatham, Harnett, Johnston, Lee, Wayne

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 14:
Edgecombe, Halifax, Nash, Warren, Wilson

Through funding from the Division of Child Development and Early Education and a Race to the Top Early Learning Challenge Grant, Child Care Services Association (CCSA) conducted a statewide survey of the early care and education workforce in North Carolina. This study provides comprehensive data on teachers, assistant teachers and directors in early care and education centers and on the licensed early care and education programs in which they work. Additionally, information gathered from this study is compared to similar studies conducted by CCSA in 2011 and 2003.

2014 North Carolina Child Care Workforce Report

Statewide Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 1:
Bertie, Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Dare, Gates, Hertford, Northampton, Pasquotank, Perquimans

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 2:
Beaufort, Craven, Hyde , Pamlico, Tyrrell, Washington

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 3:
Carteret, Greene, Jones, Lenoir, Martin, Onslow, Pitt

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 4:
Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus, Duplin, New Hanover, Pender, Sampson

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 5:
Anson, Cumberland, Hoke, Montgomery, Moore, Richmond, Robeson, Scotland

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 6:
Cabarrus, Mecklenburg, Rowan, Stanly, Union

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 7:
Catawba, Cleveland, Gaston, Lincoln

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 8:
Buncombe, Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Haywood, Henderson, Jackson, Macon, Madison, Polk, Rutherford , Swain, Transylvania

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 9:
Alexander, Avery, Burke, Caldwell, Iredell, McDowell, Mitchell, Watauga, Yancey

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 10:
Alleghany, Ashe, Davidson, Davie, Forsyth, Stokes, Surry, Wilkes, Yadkin

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 11:
Guilford, Randolph, Rockingham

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 12:
Alamance, Caswell, Durham, Franklin, Granville, Orange, Person, Vance, Wake

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 13:
Chatham, Harnett, Johnston, Lee, Wayne

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 14:
Edgecombe, Halifax, Nash, Warren, Wilson

2011 North Carolina Child Care Workforce Study

Through funding from Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation, Child Care Services Association conducted a statewide survey of the early care and education workforce in North Carolina beginning in the spring and ending in early winter 2011. This study provides comprehensive data on teachers and directors and on the licensed early care and education facilities in which they work and is compared to a similar study conducted by CCSA in 2003.

2011 North Carolina Child Care Workforce Study

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 1:
Bertie, Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Dare, Gates, Hertford, Northampton, Pasquotank, Perquimans

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 2:
Beaufort, Craven, Hyde, Pamlico, Tyrrell, Washington

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 3:
Carteret, Greene, Jones, Lenoir, Martin, Onslow, Pitt

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 4:
Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus, Duplin, New Hanover, Pender, Sampson

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 5:
Anson, Cumberland, Hoke, Montgomery, Moore, Richmond, Robeson, Scotland

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 6:
Cabarrus, Mecklenburg, Rowan, Stanly, Union

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 7:
Catawba, Cleveland, Gaston, Lincoln

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 8:
Buncombe, Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Haywood, Henderson, Jackson, Macon, Madison, Polk, Rutherford, Swain, Transylvania

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 9:
Alexander, Avery, Burke, Caldwell, Iredell, McDowell, Mitchell, Watauga, Yancey

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 10:
Alleghany, Ashe, Davidson, Davie, Forsyth, Stokes, Surry, Wilkes, Yadkin

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 11:
Guilford, Randolph, Rockingham

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 12:
Alamance, Caswell, Durham, Franklin, Granville, Orange, Person, Vance, Wake

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 13:
Chatham, Harnett, Johnston, Lee, Wayne

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 14:
Edgecombe, Halifax, Nash, Warren, Wilson

2012 North Carolina Child Care Workforce Study

Through funding from the Division of Child Development and Early Education, through a Race to the Top Early Learning Challenge Grant, Child Care Services Association (CCSA) conducted a statewide survey of the early care and education workforce in North Carolina from September 2012 through February 2013. This study provides comprehensive data on teachers, assistant teachers and directors in early care and education centers and family child care providers and on the licensed early care and education programs in which they work.

2012 North Carolina Child Care Workforce Study

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 1:
Bertie, Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Dare, Gates, Hertford, Northampton, Pasquotank, Perquimans

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 2:
Beaufort, Craven, Hyde , Pamlico, Tyrrell, Washington

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 3:
Carteret, Greene, Jones, Lenoir, Martin, Onslow, Pitt

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 4:
Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus, Duplin, New Hanover, Pender, Sampson

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 5:
Anson, Cumberland, Hoke, Montgomery, Moore, Richmond, Robeson, Scotland

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 6:
Cabarrus, Mecklenburg, Rowan, Stanly, Union

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 7:
Catawba, Cleveland, Gaston, Lincoln

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 8:
Buncombe, Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Haywood, Henderson, Jackson, Macon, Madison, Polk, Rutherford , Swain, Transylvania

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 9:
Alexander, Avery, Burke, Caldwell, Iredell, McDowell, Mitchell, Watauga, Yancey

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 10:
Alleghany, Ashe, Davidson, Davie, Forsyth, Stokes, Surry, Wilkes, Yadkin

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 11:
Guilford, Randolph, Rockingham

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 12:
Alamance, Caswell, Durham, Franklin, Granville, Orange, Person, Vance, Wake

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 13:
Chatham, Harnett, Johnston, Lee, Wayne

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 14:
Edgecombe, Halifax, Nash, Warren, Wilson

2013 North Carolina Child Care Workforce Study

Through funding from the Division of Child Development and Early Education, through a Race to the Top Early Learning Challenge Grant, Child Care Services Association (CCSA) conducted a statewide survey of the early care and education workforce in North Carolina from January 2013 through December 2013. This study provides comprehensive data on teachers, assistant teachers and directors in early care and education centers and on the licensed early care and education programs in which they work. Additionally, information gathered from this study is compared to similar studies conducted by CCSA in 2011 and 2003.

 

2013 North Carolina Child Care Workforce Study

Statewide Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 1:
Bertie, Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Dare, Gates, Hertford, Northampton, Pasquotank, Perquimans

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 2:
Beaufort, Craven, Hyde , Pamlico, Tyrrell, Washington

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 3:
Carteret, Greene, Jones, Lenoir, Martin, Onslow, Pitt

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 4:
Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus, Duplin, New Hanover, Pender, Sampson

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 5:
Anson, Cumberland, Hoke, Montgomery, Moore, Richmond, Robeson, Scotland

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 6:
Cabarrus, Mecklenburg, Rowan, Stanly, Union

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 7:
Catawba, Cleveland, Gaston, Lincoln

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 8:
Buncombe, Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Haywood, Henderson, Jackson, Macon, Madison, Polk, Rutherford , Swain, Transylvania

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 9:
Alexander, Avery, Burke, Caldwell, Iredell, McDowell, Mitchell, Watauga, Yancey

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 10:
Alleghany, Ashe, Davidson, Davie, Forsyth, Stokes, Surry, Wilkes, Yadkin

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 11:
Guilford, Randolph, Rockingham

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 12:
Alamance, Caswell, Durham, Franklin, Granville, Orange, Person, Vance, Wake

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 13:
Chatham, Harnett, Johnston, Lee, Wayne

Early Care and Education Workforce Factsheet for Region 14:
Edgecombe, Halifax, Nash, Warren, Wilson