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Maria Milla

 “I had to work when I was 15 years old,” said WAGE$ participant Maria Milla. “My country, Honduras, is very difficult, very poor. I had to move to a bigger city and live with relatives to be able to study. I wanted to be a teacher, but that required day classes. I had to work during the day, so I studied something else, but my dream was always to be a teacher. When I played school as I child, I was always the teacher!” Maria’s dream came true when she moved to the United States. 

Maria answered an advertisement for a child care center substitute and started learning about children, but she quickly realized how much more she needed and wanted to know. She kept working, took English (ESL) classes and then began her early childhood coursework. Maria started on the Child Care WAGE$® Program with the NC Early Childhood Credential (four semester hours) and now has her Birth-Kindergarten Bachelor’s Degree. She has moved up the WAGE$ scale many times, earning higher awards, and has remained at her current 5-star program since 2005. She is now only two classes away from earning her Birth to Kindergarten license. 

Maria knows how much her education and consistency mean for the children and families she serves. 

“I feel like the more education we have, the better we can do,” she said. “We learn about development and how we can help children grow and learn.” 

The T.E.A.C.H. Early Childhood® Program helped her pay for classes; she says she couldn’t have done it otherwise. She’s proud of earning her degree, and she says WAGE$ helped her attain that goal. 

“It helped with the financial component of taking classes. WAGE$ is a good motivator. I’m very thankful for all that WAGE$ and my partnership do with this incentive. I love my job and I’m happy, but I don’t make much money and this incentive helps a lot of us stay in our jobs. WAGE$ helps everybody. It helps children have the same teachers. Children feel safe, secure and happier. It helps parents feel more trust. They can leave their child with someone who has been there a long time rather than someone who comes and goes. It helps families because we don’t have to charge them more than they can pay. It helps the teachers a lot.” 

Maria joked that despite her years of education in the United States, her English continues to improve with the help of the children in her class. 

“I tell them to let me know if I say something wrong. They do! They correct me!” Laughing, Maria said, “Teaching is my passion. I want to stay in the classroom.” 

Written by Marsha Basloe, CCSA President

Source: Erie Fire Department, Erie, Pennsylvania.  August 11, 2019

On August 11, 2019, every parent’s worst nightmare happened in Erie, Pennsylvania, as a fire in an overnight family child care home took the lives of five young children ranging in age from 9 months old to 8 years old. Harris Family Daycare was regulated by the Pennsylvania Department of Human Services and operated out of a three-story home for nearly 20 years. The owner offered nontraditional (and overnight) hour care to meet the needs of working parents in her community.

When I saw the news day, my heart was heavy and my thoughts were with the families and the family child care owner.

In the United States, one out of five adult workers has a nonstandard work schedule (working early morning hours, evening hours, or overnight compared to those who work more traditional day time jobs).[1]  Among low-income families, studies have found that half of parents work jobs during nontraditional hours (e.g., cleaning offices at night or working second shift retail or food service jobs).[2]  For families who need child care during nontraditional hours, the search for child care is extraordinarily difficult. Few child care centers offer care during nontraditional hours and about one-third of regulated family child care homes offer nontraditional hour care.[3]

In the Erie case, the mother of four of the children who died was working as a nurse during an overnight shift. The father of three of the children was a fireman responding to a call at a different location. The fire occurred at 1:15 a.m. presumably while everyone was sleeping. Fire investigators found one smoke detector located in the attic and preliminary reports indicate the fire may have been caused through an extension cord malfunction.[4]

For regulated child care (centers and homes), federal law requires an annual inspection for health, safety and fire standards.[5] However, fire safety rules and inspection compliance procedures are set individually by each state. To operate a licensed family child care home in North Carolina,[6]

  • A battery operated smoke detector or an electronically operated (with a battery backup) smoke detector is required.
  • For homes operating overnight, a battery operated smoke detector or an electronically operated (with a battery backup) smoke detector is required in each room where children are sleeping.
  • An annual licensing inspection is required and a local fire inspection is required if the county in which the home is located requires it.

How do the North Carolina child care licensing requirements measure up against National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) recommendations?

Unrelated to whether a home is used for child care purposes, NFPA requires that at a minimum, smoke alarms be installed in each sleeping room and on every level of the home.[7] NFPA recommends that smoke alarms be tested once per month. For smoke alarms with non-replaceable 10-year batteries, the battery should be replaced immediately if the alarm chirps (indicating the battery is low). For smoke alarms with any other type of battery, batteries should be replaced once per year.[8]

In the case of the Erie family child care home fire, there was confusion about whose job it was to check for smoke alarm compliance (e.g., the P.A. Department of Human Services during annual inspections or the local fire department).[9] Pennsylvania state legislators are now drafting legislation to clarify roles and responsibilities and requirements. Perhaps it is time for us to review those regulations and make sure that lessons learned from Pennsylvania are used to inform safety practices here in North Carolina.  

Fire safety generally is a large issue. North Carolina does need fire safety rules and effective monitoring in place for licensed child care. At the same time, the public generally needs to be aware of potential fire danger and NFPA smoke alarm recommendations. It is important that all centers and homes be equipped with working smoke detectors, that those smoke alarms are regularly tested and that batteries are replaced on an annual basis. At $5 – $20, many smoke alarms are an inexpensive investment.[10] 

Particularly for licensed family child care homes, it is critical to ensure that fire protection policies are clear, and that the roles and responsibilities for safety checks are clear as well. Parents work nontraditional hours. Child care is needed, which may involve hours in which everyone in the household is asleep. The tragedy in Erie, P.A. gives us a chance to review fire safety rules for N.C. licensed family child care homes and centers. A child’s life depends on it.


[1] Nontraditional Hour Child Care in the District of Columbia (2018), Urban Institute. https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/99768/nontraditional-hour_child_care_in_the_district_of_columbia_0.pdf

[2] Nonstandard Work Schedules and the Well-Being of Low-Income Families (2013), Urban Institute. https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/32696/412877-Nonstandard-Work-Schedules-and-the-Well-being-of-Low-Income-Families.PDF

[3] National Survey of Early Care and Education Fact Sheet, April 2015. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/opre/factsheet_nonstandard_hours_provision_of_ece_toopre_041715_508.pdf

[4] https://www.cnn.com/2019/08/13/us/erie-day-care-fire-inspections/index.html; https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/five-children-killed-pennsylvania-day-care-fire-n1041231; https://www.cbsnews.com/news/pennsylvania-day-care-fire-firefighter-loses-3-kids-in-erie-blaze-that-killed-5-children/; https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2019/08/13/pennsylvania-daycare-caught-fire-did-not-have-enough-smoke-detectors/2002744001/

[5] The Child Care and Development Block Grant Act of 2014 (P.L. 113-186), https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/BILLS-113s1086enr/pdf/BILLS-113s1086enr.pdf

[6] https://ncchildcare.ncdhhs.gov/Portals/0/documents/pdf/F/FCCH_rulebook.pdf

[7] National Fire Safety Association recommendations and Fire Safety Code, https://www.nfpa.org/Public-Education/Staying-safe/Safety-equipment/Smoke-alarms/Installing-and-maintaining-smoke-alarms

[8] Ibid.

[9] https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2019/08/13/pennsylvania-daycare-caught-fire-did-not-have-enough-smoke-detectors/2002744001/

[10] https://home.costhelper.com/smoke-alarm.html

Written by Marsha Basloe, President of CCSA

It’s summer in North Carolina and it’s hot! Did you know that North Carolina is ranked 6th compared to all other states for child related deaths due to being left in a hot car? 

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the temperature inside a car (even with the windows cracked) can rise almost 20 degrees Fahrenheit within the first 10 minutes.[1] A child’s body overheats 3-5 times faster than an adult body and as a result, even for a short period of time, it is not safe to leave a young child alone in a car.

The majority of cases in which a child has died from a heat related car death involve a parent who unknowingly has forgotten an infant or toddler in the car. It might be that the parent has had a change in routine and inadvertently forgets that a child is asleep in a rear-facing car seat where the child can’t be seen or heard or that a caregiver has become distracted or is tired and accidently forgets. 

Source: KidsAndCars.org

In 2018, throughout the country, a record-setting 52 young children died from heat related car deaths in 2018.[2] 

In North Carolina, 35 young children have died after being left in hot cars since 1990,[3] the most recent involved the death of a 10-month old infant in May in Winston-Salem.[4]

Nearly 90% of child deaths in hot cars occur among children under age three.[5] To date this year, throughout the country, 21 children have died as a result of vehicular heat stroke,[6] the most recent death occurred earlier last week in Richmond, Virginia.[7]

We can prevent these tragedies. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) launched the Where’s Baby? Look Before You Lock campaign to get the message out to all parents, grandparents and other caregivers to be alert about the harmful and potentially fatal effects of leaving children in hot vehicles.

SAFETY TIPS:

  • NEVER leave a child in a vehicle unattended
  • Make it a habit to look in the back seat EVERY time you exit the car
  • ALWAYS lock the car and put the keys out of reach
  • If you see a child left in an unattended vehicle, call 911 and get help immediately

Kids and hot cars can be a deadly combination. Don’t take the chance and always “Look Before You Lock.”

CONGRESSIONAL CALL TO ACTION:

Several bills (H.R. 3593 and S. 1601, the Hot Cars Act of 2019) are pending in Congress to require the U.S. Department of Transportation to issue a rule requiring that all new cars be equipped with a child safety alert system (as well as a study recommending ways to retrofit current cars to ensure that young children are protected).

H.R. 3593 is under committee consideration in the House. S. 1601 has been approved in committee and is pending on the Senate calendar. If we can have a seatbelt reminder in cars, we can certainly have a reminder to check the backseat for young children.

There are steps we all can take to ensure that children are safe. We can double check the backseat always before locking the car. However, we can also urge our North Carolina Congressional delegation to cosponsor the Hot Cars Act and urge its passage.

It only takes a few seconds to dial the Congressional switchboard at (202) 224-3121 and ask to be connected to your Representative in the House or your Senator. If you aren’t sure who represents you, every state has two Senators. In North Carolina, Senator Richard Burr and Senator Thom Tillis represent us all regardless of which county we live in.

To find out who represents you in the House, click here and enter your zip code. The message is simple: In the Senate, ask that each Senator cosponsor S. 1601, the Hot Cars Act, to help prevent the death of young children in hot cars. In the House, ask that your Representative cosponsor H.R. 3593, the Hot Cars Act, to help prevent the death of young children in hot cars. And, then, ask them to support passage of the bill this year. It’s that simple!

Together, we can make a difference for children!


[1] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Heat and Infants and Children. https://www.cdc.gov/disasters/extremeheat/children.html

[2] KidsandCars.Org, https://www.kidsandcars.org/how-kids-get-hurt/heat-stroke/

[3] Ibid.

[4] Ibid.

[5] http://www.kidsandcars.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/Heatstroke-fact-sheet-2019.pdf

[6] National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, https://www.nhtsa.gov/road-safety/child-safety#topic-heatstroke

[7] https://wtvr.com/2019/07/16/britannia-road-hot-car/

By Jennifer Gioia, CCSA Communications Manager

Joe Coffey

Joe Coffey will earn his Master’s in Education (M.Ed.) from UNC-Wilmington next spring, and because of the Teacher Education and Compensation Helps (T.E.A.C.H.) Early Childhood® Scholarship program, he will do so debt-free. T.E.A.C.H. provides educational scholarships to early care professionals and those who perform specialized functions in the early care system.

Joe has had the desire to teach and engage families and children for 18 years serving as a preschool teacher, kindergarten teacher, public school administrator and training and technical assistance specialist. Now, while he pursues his M.Ed., he is the Child Care Resource & Referral (CCR&R) Program Director for Onslow County Partnership for Children in North Carolina.

“I am a true believer in lifelong learning. I also feel it is our responsibility to model life-long learning for those that we serve,” Joe said. “I originally became familiar with the T.E.A.C.H. program when I was completing my associate’s degree. Fellow students shared the information with me.”

What is T.E.A.C.H.?

In 1990, Child Care Services Association (CCSA) created the T.E.A.C.H. Early Childhood® Scholarship program to address the issues of under-education, poor compensation and high turnover in the early childhood workforce. In 2000, the T.E.A.C.H. Early Childhood® National Center was established in response to the growth and expansion of the T.E.A.C.H. Early Childhood® Scholarship. The T.E.A.C.H. Early Childhood® National Center is now offered in 22 states plus D.C. and has awarded over 150,000 scholarships since its opening.

T.E.A.C.H. is an umbrella for a variety of scholarship programs for those working in early education in North Carolina. Because of the complexities of the different scholarships, each recipient is assigned a specific scholarship counselor.

T.E.A.C.H. Scholarship Counselors

Kimberly Bynum

Kimberly Bynum, who has been with CCSA for 22 years, is the program manager for T.E.A.C.H. North Carolina. One of her main duties is to provide counseling to graduate-level scholarship recipients like Joe. Those counselors are the reason Joe can say, “The process has been easy to use and to understand.”

“Joe is a great recipient to work with,” Kimberly said. “There’s not a lot of hand holding to do with him. He’s really proactive, but if there is ever anything missing, like when we do check-ins with our recipients several times throughout the semester, he’s very responsive to getting me what I need.”

Counselors play a vital role for T.E.A.C.H. scholarship recipients, helping them navigate through the many obstacles they may face while furthering their education.

“I do the same thing for Joe as I do for all my recipients. I make sure if they’re enrolled in school, we have the documents we need to go ahead and pay for their tuition upfront, because we don’t want anybody dropped…I usually go through and look at all my recipients, including Joe, to make sure we sent in the authorization to the colleges and universities,” said Kimberly.

And because of T.E.A.C.H., Joe will be able to graduate with his M.Ed. debt-free.

“T.E.A.C.H. has made it possible for me to continually build on my education from an Associate’s in Applied Science to a Master’s in Education without incurring a huge amount of student debt,” said Joe. “Early childhood education is a field in which the professionals are often underpaid and are themselves lacking resources. T.E.A.C.H. provides an avenue to advance education and careers while helping to avoid massive student debt.”

Kimberly finds her part in that process gratifying.

“What I really enjoy most about my position is…developing that one-on-one relationship [with the recipients],” she said. “It really just brings it all together when you’re at a conference or…attending graduations and you get to meet that person face-to-face…Especially at graduation, it makes you feel really proud, because you work with these people for so long, so they made it and they’re done.”

The Economic Impact of T.E.A.C.H.

Kimberly is also proud that T.E.A.C.H. has a wide reach that goes well beyond the scholarship recipient after graduation.

“We are empowering these scholarship recipients to [earn] more education, which in turn, they bring back into their facility, they’re better equipped to teach the children and then the children are ready for school when they start kindergarten.”

Once recipients complete their degree, they increase their marketability in the early childhood education system and may experience growth in their wages as well. In 2018, associate degree scholarship program recipients experienced an 11% increase in their earnings, with a low turnover rate of 8%.

“In addition, it’s increasing the star rating level as far as education goes for those facilities they’re employed in, making them more attractive to families, so increasing business that way,” Kimberly said. “Also, what [T.E.A.C.H.] does in the community…is increase the student enrollment in early childhood education departments [at participating universities and colleges]. So by T.E.A.C.H. sponsoring students at these universities and colleges, there is a positive economic impact on the North Carolina college system.”

To continue supporting the operations of Child Care Services Association and crucial programs such as T.E.A.C.H. Early Childhood®️ Scholarship North Carolina, please consider donating today.

Stacey Graham

Stacey Graham always loved working with children and started out as a substitute in the public schools. A friend opened a family child care home and shared how much she loved it and how rewarding it was. Stacey decided to follow suit and hasn’t looked back. She has operated her own program since 2007 and from the outset she understood the importance of education. She started off with the North Carolina Early Childhood Credential, but knew that the basics were not enough to meet the needs of her children.

“Once I really started school, I said, ‘Wow, I didn’t know anything about working with children.’” Stacey continued, “You don’t know what to teach if you don’t go to school. You have to know what to look for in children to do the best by them.”

Stacey kept pursuing her coursework while she maintained her child care home, and eventually earned her Associate Degree in Early Childhood Education. According to Stacey, education has changed since she was young.

“There are a lot of expectations now for five year olds. They have to be able to do so many things. The more I learn, the more I can help them learn.”

She wants to prepare her children for the next level. She feels that the Child Care WAGE$® supplements help her do that, and she has received multiple increases in her awards due to her education gains.

“I love WAGE$. Most of my check goes back into my program for the children. It often supports a special outing and helps my single parents who cannot afford that extra money. It was definitely an encouragement to return to school. I appreciate WAGE$ and T.E.A.C.H. A lot of things wouldn’t have been possible without those two programs working together. They help providers get and do more. I hope both continue.”

Stacey has accomplished so much with her child care program and two-year degree, but she doesn’t want to stop. She’s taking a summer course toward her Bachelor’s Degree and in the fall, she plans to take a full course load and continue teaching.

When she reflects on what makes her proud, it isn’t just her education. She says that the children in her program don’t leave until they age out. “One mom brought her son here when he was six weeks old and he stayed until he went to school. Even at age 11, he still wants to come back and see me. He lives in Florida now and asks to spend the summer here!”

Learn more about Child Care WAGE$® Program here.

Learn more about Teacher Education and Compensation Helps (T.E.A.C.H.) Early Childhood® Scholarship Program here.

For Child Care Services Association, quality child care means healthy, happy children. Children who start kindergarten ready to grow, learn and succeed. Children who become successful, healthy adults. On this Mother’s Day weekend, CCSA celebrates mothers and the other incredible women in our lives.

In NC, approximately 99 percent of child care teachers are women. That statistic is mirrored in early education centers across the U.S.; women make up a large percentage of our early childhood educators and have an invaluable impact on and connection to our young children. And that connection and stability brings advantages to young children through their school years and well into adulthood. For Sarah,* a middle-school teacher, the impact child care has had on her daughter, Helen,* is immeasurable. Here’s her Child Care Story:

“Helen has been in some form of child care since she was 6 months old–so for more than three and a half years now. When she was born, I was teaching middle school in Adelphi, Md., just outside Washington, D.C. My husband worked in D.C. for the federal government. Put simply, there was no way we could afford the cost of living in the D.C. metro area without both of our salaries, so I had to go back to work.

We ran into a lot of hurdles finding child care in D.C. There are child care centers there with years-long waiting lists; people get on the waiting list before they even get pregnant in some cases. My husband worked for a federal agency that had child care in the building, which would have been so ideal — except it had a long waiting list, and it was incredibly expensive (so expensive my salary would basically have covered the cost of that, and nothing more). Colleagues recommended a variety of places, but space and expense kept being issues. Finally a friend mentioned that a child had just left her son’s center, and things just fell into place. It was a licensed home-based child care center, and it was incredibly convenient to our house and my work. It was owned and run by a Colombian immigrant, and all of the employees were native Spanish speakers, so we had this unexpected blessing of giving Helen a language immersion experience from infancy.

Being in child care since she was a baby has been a great thing for Helen. She is a very social kid, and she loves the stimulation of being around other children (especially as an only child). She’s great at communicating and sharing and empathizing, and I fully credit her time in child care for those skills. Watching her this year in her preschool setting, I know she was much more prepared for that than some of the other children in her class who had never experienced school. Beyond that, child care has helped her be more independent from me and her dad. She doesn’t cry when we leave her with a babysitter and she feels confident to be with people besides us. And she’s learned a lot. She’s a smart kid who picks up everything she’s exposed to. Thanks to our great child care experiences, we have a 4-year-old who’s fluent in Spanish, an expert on butterfly metamorphosis, and quickly becoming a great little chef.

Child care has also helped Helen grow into a great kid. I’m biased, but I think she’s an extremely kind, thoughtful, intelligent, polite, and self-possessed child. I attribute the development of many of those qualities to her experiences at school. She also feels safe and loved at school, and as a parent, that’s exactly what I want for her.”

CCSA works to ensure that all children, regardless of their circumstances, have equal access to the same wonderful, supportive learning experience that Helen and her family have had. Through financial assistance for families that cannot afford quality care, free referral services to families seeking child care, technical assistance to child care businesses and educational scholarships and salary supplements to child care professionals through the TEACH Early Childhood® and Child Care WAGE$® programs, CCSA works with parents, teachers, and child care centers to put all our young children on a path toward health and happiness. Support that mission by giving to CCSA today.

*Names changed.

Read our quarterly newsletter here.

Marsha Basloe, President of Child Care Services Association

A few years ago, I had the opportunity to work on an Early Childhood Homelessness – 50 State Profile at a time when states were just beginning to look at early childhood services to young children experiencing homelessness. I was fortunate to be able to work with an intern, Jinha Yoon, who had just graduated from Georgetown and who had a passion for data. Jinha was excited to be part of this project and I was excited to have her ability to do magic with the multitude of data and spreadsheets! The first 50 state profile was released in January 2015 using 2013 data. (Although I had to say good bye to Jinha, I was pleased to be a reference for her first job.)

In 2017, knowing that we needed more recent data, John McLaughlin from the Dept. of Education and I had the opportunity to work with the D.C. Education Policy Fellows Program (EPFP) to update the 50 State profiles. EPFP sponsored by the Institute for Educational Leadership provides wonderful opportunities for Fellows to develop leadership skills and an understanding of public policy. Fortunately, it also includes a major group project.

Three students, Abigail Cohen, Madelyn Gardner and Jennifer McDowell, signed on to help update the 50 State profiles and put their stamp on the new product as their EPFP project. It was fun working with them, answering questions, seeing their research, hearing their ideas, previewing the pages and more. I remember the day they came to present the updated Early Childhood Homelessness in the United States: 50-State Profile to a group of us at ACF. They’d already presented to their classmates as you can see in the picture above. It was released in June 2017 using newer data from 2015 and they had added new related factors – housing cost burden and percent of families with children under age 6 working, but remaining low income.  States immediately used this new information.

Last week, when I attended the National Research Conference on Early Childhood (NRCEC) in Washington, D.C., I had another chance to see them and their work! They had submitted a poster session and had been accepted to present on their project: Exploring Early Childhood Homelessness in the United States: Prevalence and Access to Federal Early Childhood Education Services.  I was the first person to get to their poster session got to hear them talk about the project and all they had learned. I was so pleased for them and for our community. Abby and Maddy (pictured here) stepped up to be part of a leadership program and took great pride in this project. It does make me hopeful that with new, young researchers in our field, we are going to do good things for children and families in the future.

(Basloe was the senior advisor in the Office of Early Childhood at the Administration for Children and Families, DHHS.)